Breda-02: Seminar on 20/21je94

Seminar program 20-21 June 1994

Monday 20 June 1994

08.30 reception of the participants

09.15 welcoming speeches

09.30 seminar opening adress by Mr. E. Nijpels, Mayor of Breda

10.00 1st keynote-speaker C.A.J. Duijvestein

'Re-allocation in relation to sustainable building'

10.30 case 'De Pont' by architect W.M. Crouwel

11.00 2nd Keynote-speaker drs. A.L.L.M. Asselbergs

're-allocation in relation to culture and history'

11.30 case 'de Maagd' by architect 0. Greiner

12.00 plenary discussion

12.30 lunch at chapel 'lJpelaar'

14.00 case 'Town Hall of Bishop Auckland' by architect B. Ainsworth

14.30 3rd keynote-speaker prof. H. de Jonge

'Real estate is re-use?'

15.00 case 'Wolters-Noordhoff' by architect K. Rijnboutt

15.30 refreshments

16.00 case 'New Life for Older Schools' by architect John J. Castellana

16.30 case 'University Library Bucarest' by architect P. Swoboda

17.00 plenary discussion

18.30 drinks in 'De Grote Kerk', Breda

21.30 informal evening program

Tuesday 21 June 1994

08.45 arrival of the participants

09.15 4th keynote-speaker Mr. C.J.D. Waal

'Spatial relations between town and college'

09.45 case 'Het Arsenaal' by architect Tj. Dijkstra

10.15 case 'New life for Michael's Hill' by architect Y. Hertz

10.45 coffee break

11.15 Breda example by municipality-official T. Hartman

11.45 case 'Re-allocation of two educational buildings in Buenos Aires' by

architect J. Scheider

12.15 plenary discussion

12.45 lunch in chapel IJpelaar

14.00 5th keynote-speaker drs. H.W.M. Schoof

'Re-use, a govermental concern!'

14.30 case 'lJpelaar' by architect L. Rienks

15.15 coffee break and guided tour through IJpelaar

16.00 paneldiscussion

17.15 closing session

17.45 informal closing

19.00 dinner in chapel IJpelaar'

Re-use of buildings saves money, the environment, culture and atmosphere'

Buildings unnecessarily demolished by incompetence of (local) authorities

At the beginning of the seventies Professor Dolf Hendriks, economist at the Economic Institute for the Building Industry and Professor at the Delft University of Technology, predicted in his report, 'Limits to growth, that new building would decrease and that in future most building activities would consist of maintenance of the existing stock of buildings. He came to that conclusion on the basis of demographic and economic statistics. At that early date he could foresee the effects of modern technology and communication which make different demands on buildings: smaller volume, but with a higher quality infrastructure. The

prediction of the Professor, meanwhile deceased, is being confirmed by the two million square metres of office space which is now standing empty. More and more old buildings are being abandoned by trade and industry. Although Hendriks was employed by an institute financed by the construction industry, financiers did not believe his prediction and, according to those in the know, was more or less laughed off the stage. He was regarded a troublemaker, the forecaster of bad news and did not want to hear anything he said. Hendriks warned the authorities, the building industry and the building training colleges to change direction in good time. Efforts, he proclaimed, had to concentrate on maintenance and improvement of the existing stock. Partly as a result of his efforts, the chair of Restoration, Renovation and Maintenance was instituted at the faculty of Engineering.

In Amsterdam grain silos were inspected for possible use as dwellings and workshops. A water tower in Rotterdam was converted to a new use as an office and an old hospital and a church in Utrecht were magically converted to extremely luxurious flats. Most of the gross national assets are invested in buildings. Over the last ten years eighty billion guilders have been spent on new building. Two-thirds of the development costs are accounted for by the load-bearing structure and the facades. Even after one hundred and fifty years the load-bearing structure of a building is still generally in good condition, while the facades are good for about fifty years. In many cases that means that the re-use of the load-bearing structure and the facade, plus the costs of renovation and adaptation, are a good bit cheaper than erecting new buildings with the costs of demolition. And

From 'Gebouwen onnodig gesloopt door incompetentie van (lokale) overheid', an article by Philip Broos, published in 'Delft Integraar, 94-1.

we have still said nothing about the atmosphere in and around buildings. Re-use, moreover, is more labour-intensive than new building which is mainly capital-intensive, and is therefore good for employment. Nevertheless, too little use is made of existing buildings and many hundreds of millions of guilders are lost because the authorities are not competent in the field of re-use. That is an argument of Professor Joop van Stigt of the Architecture and Building Faculty of the Delft Technological University. The calculation methods of local and national authorities result too often in demolition, while it has been shown that re-use is also financially feasible.

Change of function

Seventy per cent of gross national assets consists of real estate, with a replacement value of some 1400 billion guilders. More than 70% of all buildings in the Netherlands date from the period after 1945, in which period the housing stock in the Netherlands rose from 1.5 million to 5.8 million. Re-use mainly concerns buildings from before 1960 and premises which have been written off on the balance sheet. University Professor Ir. Leo G.W. Verhoef of the Building Technology department and his colleague, Ir. Kees Th.H. van Rongen, of the Architecture department have since 1987 been cooperating closely in researching the re-use of buildings. Verhoef works in the Renovation and Maintenance Section, his colleague Van Rongen is a member of the Re-use Section. "Re-use and renovation go hand in hand but are different activities", states Van Rongen. "Re­use involves both a change of function and alteration of the building. In renovation only the building changes and the function remains the same; in the case of re-use there is almost always renovation."

The various kinds of re-use are:

premises which acquire a new function as housing;

old premises which acquire a new operational function;

old commercial premises which are restored for the same user;

old (large) dwellings which are used as office premises; and premises which

acquire a new residential function.

Renovation is also divided into two activities: restoration and renovation. Restoration restores old buildings to their original state, in which process the various stages in history may or may not be left visible. In this case the cultural aspect is very dominant, while in renovation the adaptations based on economic considerations predominate.


Van Rongen and Verhoef have, been involved in many projects. These were sometimes to do with individual building owned by individual clients; sometimes they concerned groups of dwellings or buildings and were commissioned by the (local) authorities.

"In one case of renovation in Rotterdam, due to lack of maintenance," said

Verhoef, "the town council wanted to remove the tops of a row of houses

because it would be much easier and less costly than maintenance. But the houses would then have presented a horrible sight. It would be the beginning of dilapidation. Technically, the plan was acceptable but it revealed limited economic understanding. The visual quality of the houses would be greatly reduced. That meant that the houses would be more difficult to let. The rents would have to go down in order to fill the houses. Another consequence would be that you don't get the right occupants."

The Delft University teachers were also involved in a research project in the Bijlmermeer, concerning the Hoogoord building. "The area is often felt to be dull. People cannot identify with it because each of the five thousand doors and flats is the same. That is a typical example of decline. In the Bijlmermeer colours were used for the purpose of differentiation. In the first flat that was painted in order to combat concrete decay," Verhoef explains, "the degree of occupation of that flat has increased considerably. There was clearly a need for identity. Demolition and building something else is an enormous waste of capital. We are thinking of other means such as changing the horizontalism and the dull look of apartment buildings into more individual verticalism. For that a range of means can be used such as the addition of rooms and open spaces, which emphasises the individual character of the dwellings and groups a number of flats per portico or stairway. Visually, this creates rows of very tall houses. At Clinchy, a suburb of Paris, Van Rongen investigated the effect of this. Formerly, there was a very great deal of crime. Two years ago, when we were there, people pointed out that no-one allowed their dog to excrete in the street. Some years before people could hardly move about for excrement."

Van Rongen and Verhoef have made study tours to the United States, France, Germany, Britain, Belgium and Canada to study the re-use phenomenon on the spot. Verhoef says, "In the Netherlands re-use is sometimes opted for in the case of buildings that are suspected of being built on polluted ground."

In cases of this kind, according to Van Rongen and Verhoef, politics too often comes before a feeling for history and clear economic thinking in the longer term. An example of that is the demolition of the District Hospital in Purmerend that was opened in February 1940. It was a magnificent example of New Building. From the point of view of function and economy the provincial states of North Holland showed that this building was suitable for re-use as part of the planned municipal offices of Purmerend. According to Verhoef it was finally decided for political reasons not to place the former regional hospital on the list of national

monuments, after which Purmerend issued a demolition permit.


According to Professor Joop van Stigt, who occupies the chair of Renovation and Maintenance Engineering and who heads a firm of architects, "Far more buildings deserve considering for re-use than is the case at present. That is because there is no group of trained architects or planning experts who are capable of judging the possibilities offered by the existing stock of houses on their merits". As an architect Van Stigt has carried out dozens of re-use projects, including the old main building of the University Hospital on the Catharijnesingel in Utrecht, which now houses very luxurious flats, and the Harbour Garrison in Geertruidenberg. "Take, for example, the area of the Entrepotdok (Bonded Warehouses) and the Oranje Nassau barracks in the eastern dock area of Amsterdam. The city's Housing Department said, on the basis of research by the then owner of the complex, which was probably not even carried out, that there were cracks in the foundations of the Entrepotdok. This meant that the city would be able to demolish the buildings, so that an open area would become available at an interesting location in the city. The Amsterdam Conservation Committee, however, instructed us to carry out a feasibility study, from an economic point of view hoping to build council housing in the existing complex. The result was that re-use could in fact be decided upon on an economic basis. The Amsterdam Housing Department stated that the operation would cause a deficit of between seven and ten million guilders. We, on the other hand, found it could break even. The building costs came to 22.4 million guilders for 150 dwellings, nearly four thousand square metres of industrial premises and 150 parking places. The total monument frontage was twice 500 metres", said an excited Van Stigt. "And then I did not even need to bring in subsidies. The project was carried out in 1988. The price per dwelling was kept within the limits for council houses, namely Hfl. 90,000." The professor says that the prices of these dwellings are comparable with the prices of new building, but that is a political accounting gimmick.

"In fact the building of these dwellings was less expensive because demolition costs are always paid from general funds and consequently not shown in direct operational accounts. You could nearly say there was deception of the public. The Amsterdam Council Housing Department wanted originally to demolish part of the Entrepotdok and replace it with new buildings. The costs of demolition and extra infrastructure would have been between ten and fifteen million guilders which would be passed on to the general assets and urban renewal kitty."

Van Stigt also managed the re-use of the Posthoorn Church, the Vondel Church, and the Majella Church in Amsterdam, all of which the city council wanted to demolish.

"A demolition permit had in fact been issued for the Posthoorn Church but as a result of an appeal by the Posthoorn Foundation to the Provincial Executive the demolition permit was declared null and void. Nowadays, if you want to carry out

a restoration project, you have to submit an operating plan. In the case of dwelling houses and offices you have the rental, but with premises in the collective and cultural sector the accounting is somewhat more complex. In the Posthoorn Church we built offices which were to be leased on a commercial basis at different levels in the side chapels. The business rent subsidies the central areas such as the theatre, the old people's club and the crèche. All these projects have an economically independent basis. Running them does not involve a cent of subsidy from the authorities", says the Professor firmly.

Van Stigt, Verhoef and Van Rongen all agree that the universities and other schools for architecture have not taken re-use seriously. Their feelings are expressed by Van Rongen who says, "Hardly any serious effort is being made in the educational field to adjust to the changing market. At the Delft Technological University there are only three people who are regularly engaged in the teaching of and research into such an important aspect as re-use. The general idea appears to be that no international honour can be obtained from a heap of old rubbish.

Declaration of Interdependence for a Sustainable Future

U1A/AIA World Congress of Architects

Chicago, 18-21 June 1993

In recognition that:

A sustainable society restores, preserves, and enhances nature for the benefit of all life, present and future; a diverse and healthy environment is intrinsically valuable and essential to a healthy society; today's society is seriously degrading the environment and is not sustainable;

We are ecologically interdependent with the whole natural environment; we are socially, culturally, and economically interdepent with all of humanity; sustainability, in the context of this interdepence, requires partnership, equity, and balance among all parties;

Buildings and the built environment play a major rule in the human impact on the natural environment and on the quality of life; sustainable design intergrates consideration of resource and energy efficiency, healthy buildings and materials, ecologically and socially sensitive land-use, and an aesthetic sensitivity that inspires, affirms, and ennobles; sustainable design can significantly reduce adverse human impacts on the natural environment while simultanously improving quality of life and economic well being;

We commit ourselves,

as members of the world's architectural and building-design professions, individually and trough our professional organisations, to;

  • Place environmental and social sustainability at the core of our practices and professional responsiblities

  • Develop and continously improve practices, procedures, products, curricula, services, and standards that will enable the implementation of sustainable design;

  • Educate our fellow professionals, the building industry, clients, students, and the general public about the critical importance and substantial opportunities of sustainable design;

  • Establish policies, regulations, and practices in government and business that ensure sustainable design becomes normal practice

  • Bring all existing and future elements of the built environment - in their design, production, use, and eventual reuse - up to sustainable design standards.

signed by: Olufemi Majekodunmi, President of the International Union of Architects

Susan A. Maxman, President of the American Institute of Architects

List of keynote-speakers

Introduction by prof. ir. C.A.J. Duijvestein 10

Introduction by drs. A.L.L.M. Asselbergs 11

Introduction by prof. H. de Jonge 12

Introduction by mr. C.J.D. Waal 13

Introduction by drs. H.W.M. Schoof 14

Re-allocation in relation to sustainable building by C.A.J. Duijvestein

The contribution to environmental problems by the (Dutch) building industry is considerable. The amount building and demolition waste in 1990 for instance was 13 million tons at a total of 30 million tons of waste. This is 30 millions tons without the manure, harboursludge and sewage purification sludge.

Yet for years people have been trying to build in a different way: ecological, biological, bio-ecological, environment-friendly, environment-minded, environment saving, holistic and organic building; there is also 'Duurzaam Bouwen' (Sustainable Building), a concept introduced by the 'Nationaal MilieubeleidsPlan Plus' (National Environmetal Policy Plan-Plus). These concepts all vary in nuance but their main objective is 'to minimize environmental problems during the whole life cycle of a building, district or town'.

The streams through the building (or city or society) cause environmental problems; at the INTO-side it is the depletion and at the OUT OF side it is pollution. At both sides there are harmful effects.

In order to function various streams through a building are required, which differ strongly in flow rate; smaller streams and lower flow rates can minimize the environmental problems.

Example: 'Techniek Museum Delft', designed by architect ir. Jasper van Zwol. This building was a laboratorium for the faculty of Mechanical Engineering from ± 1895 until 1965, then a design studio for Architecture students until 1970, then the students restaurant 'Mensa' and since 1993 a museum.

Curriculum vitae C.A.J. Duijvestein

Prof .ir. C.A.J. Duijvestein is professor Sustainable Design related to architecture,

Delft University of Technology.

This article is a translation and adaptation of a part of "Thinking in Systems, Designing in Variants" the inaugural speech of Kees Duijvestein, professor in Environmental Design in relation to Architecture at the Faculy of Architecture in the University of Technology in Delft, on May 14 th 1993.

Translation: Pieneke Leijs; Delft.

Building and the Environment

The contribution to environmental problems by the Dutch building industry is considerable, as shown by the following examples: a contribution of 16% to the depletion of the ozone layer for which the building trade is responsible, and a contribution of 30% to the greenhouse effect as a result of heating houses and other buildings.

Yet for years people have been trying to build in a different way: Ecological, biological, bio-ecological, environment-friendly, environment-minded, environment saving, holistic and organic building; there is also "Duurzaam Bouwen" (Sustainable Building), a concept introduced by the 'Nationaal MilieubeleidsPlan Plus' (National Environmental Policy Plan-Plus). These concepts all vary in nuance but their main objective is "to minimize environmental problems during the whole life cycle of a building, district or town".


In order to deal with the concepts of environment and environmental problems it is necessary to work out and unravel these concepts. 'Milieu' (environment) comes from the French language, "au milieu de" means 'in the middle of'. As a result of the distance from the sun temperatures vary from - 60'C to + 40°C, depending on the position of a place on the earth. This is why water in a liquid state is available in large quantities. Thanks to the atmosphere there are no large fluctuations in temperature, resulting in the basic conditions for life on earth.

Environment may be defined as "the collection of conditions for life".

Spatial components

The concept of environment may be further divided into three groups of component parts

  1. abiotic components

  2. biotic components

  3. conceptual components

    Abiotic components

Abiotic components are the non-living and original elements such as: ground, water, air, energy, raw materials, light,

radiation, climate, space etcetera.

Biotic components

Biotic components are human beings, animals, plants and micro organisms: all that lives. Conceptual components

Conceptual components are buildings, roads, mains, canals, building materials, but also culture, religion etcetera: everything man has added to the other components.


The division Abiotic - Biotic - Conceptual may also be

considered on the basis of a series of conditions.

The abiotic component is a condition for the biotic component: no human beings, animals or

other organisms can exist without

an abiotic environment, whereas an abiotic environment can exist without any organisms (for

instance on another planet). The biotic component in its turn is a condition for, or bearer

of, the conceptual component.

Figure 2 shows this conditionality.

Environmental problems

Environmental problems may be divided into primary and

secondary ones.

Primary environmental problems are: pollution, depletion and harmful effects.

- Pollution

Pollution means adding chemical or physical elements to the environment in larger quantities

than can be processed by the cycles of nature causing accumulation.

- Depletion

This means the extraction of biotic components (firewood, fish, wildlife) or abiotic

components (minerals, water, fertile soil) from the environment in larger quantities than can

be replenished by the cycles of nature.

- Harmful effects

By harmful effects we mean the intervention of man in the environment causing changes in the

original shape to such an extent that it is to be considered a deterioration.

The primary problems result in secondary environmental problems:

- harm to the health of human beings

- harm to the conditions of life for animals and plants

- harm due to loss of function of equipment and buildings for instance.

The primary and secondary environmental problems are often difficult to measure economically. Additional absence through illness due to bad air quality might be expressed in


terms of money but is not registered as such. Moreover the victims are often children and elderly people who do not participate in the production process.

It is forbidden to pick orchids which grow on the dry lime slopes in the south of Limburg. It is not forbidden, however, to plough meadows on higher grounds, to grow maize there and to use fertilizers in large quantities. Nobody will ever calculate the economic loss caused by the disappearance of orchids, and it seems altogether impossible to pass on this loss in the prices of milk and meat. The damage to historical monuments caused by air pollution in large town centres is registered but is not included in the price of petrol for instance.


In the contrast 'built - vacant' a town is often regarded a threat to the vacant/open/natural area. Until the Second World War a town often was a relatively dirty place in a large clean open space, which was mainly used for agriculture; remaining areas were "wasteland", as forest and nature used to be called in those days. In the last few years a reversal/inversion with regard to the water system has come about in many places.

Due to economy oriented policies the agricultural system was forced to develop into a widespread and polluting branch of industry.

A town has become a place with relatively clean water in spite of the pollution that is often visible on the surface of the water.

In the Middle Ages Delft was known for its beer in spite of the fact that the water to be used for brewing was taken from the same canals into which the sewers emptied. Delft was surrounded by a vast and very clean agricultural area, which continually flushed Delft. All went well till a few centuries ago; the town became increasingly dirty and the brewers stopped making beer.

Now it seems as if an inversion has taken place; the water of the canals in Delft is so clear in places that you can look as far as one metre deep. Birds, for instance grebes which catch their fish under water, now nest in the middle of the town, traffic racing around them and polluting the air.

However, the quality of the water has not yet improved sufficiently for the new beer "Delfts Brouw" to be brewed with water from the canals.

Now that the agricultural system is not only producing too much manure but also too many products of a sometimes dubious quality, there will be a time when agriculture in less profitable areas will be replaced by other functions. In the Green Heart of the Randstad this function may very well be that of nature, to which the Wetlands forming peat may contribute by holding CO2, in addition to their important natural function of strengthening the ecological main structure. In sandy areas factory farming may be replaced by houses and nature, which, in the longer term, will prevent further pollution of our drinking water in the pleistocene subsoil; in the short term it may prevent acidification and the effects of noxious odours. This may transform "building" as an environmental polluter into an environmental improver.

Since last year I have been involved in the development of Nieuwland, a new housing district in Amersfoort. The building site for 5,000 houses is situated on the transition of the foothills of the "Amersfoortse Berg" and the humid soil of the Eem valley. It is an attractive area with many meadows, different kinds of allotment, plants and buildings. Unfortunately, the soil as well as the ground and surface waters are of a bad quality due to factory farming. It will take years before the quality of the water here has improved as a result of the new function as residential area.

Sustainable Building

In order to change from an environmental polluter into an environmental improver building will have to be transformed into sustainable/ecological building.

(NB: Whenever building is mentioned in this text it should be read as "building and living and working".) It is the task of building teams to design buildings in such a way that the least possible harm is caused to the environment during the whole life cycle of a building, from its design to its demolition.

Environment-technical designing can stimulate sustainable conduct throughout all phases via the design. Design and specifications should not only prescribe a way of sustainable building, but the new house and the new district should also encourage ways of sustainable living and working. It may even be decided on the drawing board whether a building is eventually to be disassembled and demolished selectively.

Stimulating sustainable conduct through designing

Stimulating sustainable conduct through designing can be applied on many levels: from

appliances and building components via buildings and areas to towns as well as regions. Tins for beer and soft drinks ought to be abolished. Should, in exceptional cases, tins have to be used they must be taxed with 50 cents ecotax. The manufacturers should accept returnable tins, pay 25 cents for them and the tins must be recycled completely. As a result collecting tins will become a profitable business. (In the USA the return premium today is in some states 5 dollar cents.)

Walkmans and their excessive use of batteries may be replaced by eco walkmans having a spring mechanism to drive the belt and a photovoltaic cell with a capacitor as a buffer to amplify the sound. Obviously, this still does not solve the (noise) nuisance walkmans may cause.

Houses with roofs orientated towards the south can be equipped with photovoltaic cells. Electricity generated in this way may even be returned to the electricity grid if it is not immediately required in the homes. The first ten houses have already been built this way in Heerhugowaard. For the district of Sloten in Amsterdam there are plans for 100 houses with solar cells.

In towns collecting systems for recycling household goods and for separated waste can be developed. This will work out particularly well if convenient places for the containers in the residential areas are selected and if at a regional level there is a sufficient outlet for compost for example.


Building and living have consequences both in time and in space. The figure below is derived from the five-scale model of the RIVM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene / National Institute for Public Health and Environmental Protection); it indicates in what way characteristic activities of building and living on a certain scale have consequences on other scales. Heating a building to make it an agreeable place to live and work in results in acidification on a regional scale, and on the global scale it contributes to the depletion of energy and to the greenhouse effect.

Interuniversity Study groups Town and Country Planning

In January 1978 the Centre of Technical-Environmental Science and the Department of Landscape Architecture and Ecology of the former Technical College, now the Delft University of Technology, initiated the Interuniversity Study group Town and Country Planning: Urban Design & Environment ('ISP SOM'). it was a group of ten students from various faculties who worked together (in order to complete their studies ) and were supervised by staff members and professors. After six months they completed their work with a catalogue listing possible solutions to all kinds of urban environmental problems as well as advice for further investigation.

With each faculty now having one or more professors of environment it is hard to imagine that at the end of the seventies talking about the environment met with so much resistance in the then very technocratic University of Technology. After the first 'SOM' group (StadsOntwerp & Milieu / Urban Design & Environment) more groups were set up, with an average of 1 each year. These 'SOM' groups continued the research work and made a design for a town or neighbourhood, using the SOM 1 catalogue. These groups consisted of students and supervisors from a variety of subject areas; architects and town planners, economists and biologists, sociologists and mechanical engineers, and others participated. This method of working resulted in plans for towns and for housing in Delft, Almere, Rotterdam, Dronten, Schiedam and Wageningen.

In order to have students and supervisors from such a wide range of subject areas cooperate intensive guidance of the group process is required, which was provided by staff members of the department of the Interdisciplinary Study groups Town and Country Planning.

Cooperation regarding content was based on the system theory; especially the relation theory derived from it, as taught in Delft by professor dr Chr.G. van Leeuwen, proved to be an excellent means for interdisciplinary cooperation.

Black box

The representation of an SOM 1 town needed simplification in order to work on environmental issues involving many different subject areas.

Towns, districts and buildings, as so many other things, can simply be respresented by a so-cailed black box. In order to keep up supplies by means of transport, energy and raw materials are required, which leads to environmental problems as a result of depletion and harmful effects. Examples are: exhaustion of the reserves of fossil fuels and harmful effects on river forelands caused by the brick industry.

Disposal, the discharge from a building may be hazardous to the environment and to the building itself. Environmental problems arise through pollution and harmful effects, for instance pollution of surface water and harm to the open space.

In order to save energy and raw materials supplies should be reduced. Discharge ought to be limited in order to save space and to prevent pollution of air, water and soil, for which better techniques are required. Besides recycling particular attention should be paid to the effectiveness of the systems with regard to the use of energy and raw materials, and their life cycle.

Buildings and the built environment as a model apparatus

The ecologists G. van Wirdum and Chr. G. van Leeuwen have developed the so-called eco device in which besides "INTO" (feed) and "OUT OF" (disposal) as functions of the black box, also the "NOT INTO" (resistance) and "NOT OUT OF" (retention) can be distinguished.

The source (where the stream comes from; the sun for energy) is on the feeding side and the drain (into which everything disappears; for energy the universe) on the disposal side. Of the four functions present in the eco device: IN (feed), OUT (disposal), NOT IN (resistance) and NOT OUT (retention), it is particularly the functions IN and OUT that have been used by technology.

Almost everybody is becoming aware of the "primary" environmental problems of depletion and pollution. Perhaps the time has now come to have a close look at the other functions NOT IN (resistance) and NOT OUT (retention), the shield functions.

The Netherlands as a flushing system

The Netherlands function as a flushing system in which rainwater and the waters of Rhine and Meuse function as a means of transport, the countries upstream and Dutch agriculture and industry being the "source" and North Sea and Waddenzee being the "drain".

(For years we have indignantly pointed to Germany and France as the big polluters of the Rhine, the conurbations of Rotterdam and The Hague not even having sewage works.)

The shield functions will have to be deployed to prevent things from deteriorating further. The function of resistance (NOT IN) may be strengthened by concluding treaties with Germany, France and Switzerland about reduced disposal by industry, agriculture and households: the function of retention (NOT OUT) may be strengthened by reduced disposal into inland waterways by our own industry, agriculture and households and, of course, by prohibiting disposal into the sea.

The difference in the thickness of the arrows in the figures 9 and 10 indicates the necessary change. The extent of this change will be indicated with the concept of space for environmental use.

Space for environmental use

On 8 January 1993, the Delft University foundation day, professor dr L. Jansen and professor H. van Heel gave an idea of the extent of the necessary change in the next 50 years. The space for environmental use was represented by the formula:

In this formula D stands for the total pressure on the environment; M stands for the necessary amount of environmental goods per unit of prosperity; W stands for the average prosperity per head of the population and B is the size of the world population.


  • the world population B will probably increase in the next 50 years by a factor 2 or 3,

  • the prosperity per head W will increase by a factor 4 to 8 especially as a result of the need in the second and the third world,

- the pressure on the environment D should not increase any further or preferably should be reduced by a factor 2,


M, the "quantity of environmental goods" per unit of prosperity, must be reduced by a factor 8 to 50. This will be a heavy task for future generations of technicians.

But this is the New Necessity.

Three-step strategy

The means available to increase efficiency can be applied in accordance with the "three-step strategy".


On the IN-side of the system this strategy is:

step 1: Prevent unnecessary use.

step 2: Use renewable sources.

step 3: Make a sensible use of limited sources

  1. clean and

  2. with a high efficiency.

This approach holds true for all fluxes and all streams which go through a system, such as energy, water and building materials.

Through this three-step strategy a contribution can be made to the solution of the primary environmental problems: depletion. pollution and harmful effects.

Step 1: Prevent unnecessary use

This step is part of the functions of blocking and resistance in the eco device. which raises questions such as:

Is the new building actually necessary; was the previous building not good enough; cannot we do with a little less?

Has the building been designed and executed in such a way that guarantees a long lifespan? Will energy be wasted due to insufficient insulation?

Will materials not rot away due to badly worked out details and/or insufficient attention with regard to possibilities of maintenance?

Step 2: Use sustainable / renewable sources

This step is part of the feed functions in the eco device and includes the use of solar energy and wind energy, as well as the use of daub and wood as building materials, i.e. if the wood is not the product of exhaustive cultivation. Recycling waste materials and rejected heat is also included in this step

Step 3: Make a sensible use of limited sources

This step includes all kinds of highly efficient equipment: high efficiency boilers and heat pumps, but also public transport.


The three-step strategy for the OUT-side is as follows:

step 1: Prevent waste

step 2: Recycle waste

step 3: Sensible waste processing

  1. as clean as possible

  2. retaining for future use

Step 1: Prevent waste

Step 1 includes disassembling buildings which are to be demolished, and recycling materials such as roof tiles, bricks, beams of steel and wood.

Refusing unnecessary packaging, the extension of the lifespan of goods by using better qualities and more repairable goods are also included in this step.

Step 2: Recycle waste

This step includes the separation of waste at the source as well as selective demolishment, as a result of which recycling (of for instance granulated brick and concrete) will be possible. Insulating material made from old paper is another good example.

Step 3: Sensible waste processing

According to step 3 waste still remaining should not be burned. First the problem of emissions (dioxine) must be solved, for instance by prohibiting the production and use of PVC. Instead of burning the waste material should be stored in such a way that future use will be possible when mining techniques are improved.

On 1 May 1993 a number of environmentalist groups (among them 'Natuur en Milieu' (Nature and Environment), 'Milieudefensie' (Environmental Protection) and the 'Platform Biologische Landbouw en Voeding' (Platform Biological Agriculture and Food) proposed the ecotax plus.

This tax includes: tax on the usage of limited energy and materials, and tax reduction on labour. This is an important policy measure for step 1, both for the IN-side and the OUT-side.

Interdisciplinary cooperation

Building teams generally consist of experts from various functions and disciplines. The functions may be: municipal administrator, civil servant, developer, contractor and external consultant. Possible disciplines may include: civil engineering, town planning, architecture, landscape architecture, industrial organization and economics. All these people together will try to cover the whole building process. Yet it often happens that certain subjects are inadequately dealt with because they do not come under any of the disciplines mentioned, or if they are related to many disciplines, but only slightly per discipline.

Examples may be:

  • the design of the environment of a residential area

  • frequently the exaggerated size of cable trenches

  • the relation between pavement and sewer systems - the design of places for the collection of separated waste

  • spatial consequences of separation of waste in houses - quality of the interior environment in buildings

The first step to prevent the above problems is to make the disciplines meet. often called "multi-disciplinary" cooperation.

The next step is interdisciplinary cooperation, in which participants venture across the safe borders of their own subject areas and occasionally try to think from other subject areas. This requires some insight into and appreciation of the other subject area.

Method of four variants

Accomplishing an environmentally sound design depends on all the partners in the design process. They will use their influence not merely on the basis of motivation, but especially on the basis of the available finance and practical possibilities. In order to prevent the majority of ecological measures from failing during the building process because of practical and financial objections, it is advisable to take up positions at an early stage in consultation with all parties involved.

Good designers always see more, sometimes even many. possibilities or variants. Other disciplines do not always have a clear survey of this abundance of ideas. Grouping the variants in accordance with environmental themes and arranging them as to environmental goals will result in a convenient method for all concerned.

Possible themes are: Energy, building materials, water, food and waste. In the arrangement four levels may be distinguished that ascend in environmental friendliness.

D: The normal situation

C: Correct normal use

B: Minimizing damage to the environment

A: Autonomous; the most favourable situation

The D variant represents building based on current standards.

The A variant has maximum feasibility. The C and B variants are somewhere in between. This method informs the building team about the possibilities and leads to selections for which those involved are responsible. All kinds of themes and sub-themes are possible:

theme: Energy

D: Normal, according to the Building Regulations, approximately 1200 m3 of natural gas for heating

C: 800 m3, level 'Overbos 8 district' in Hoofddorp

B: 400 m3, minimum energy houses by Kristinsson

A: Zero energy house

theme: Building materials

D: Normal. economic selection

C: Indigenous / north-west European

B: Biological building, the house as a third skin A: Indigenous and biological building


theme: Water

D: Normal

C: Economical with drinking water

B: Use rainwater for flushing and cleaning

A: Completely autonomous

theme: Food

D: Food from the supermarket

C: Educational food production 1 - 20 m2 per household

B: A vegetable garden for everybody, 100 m2 per household

A: Completely autonomous, 1000 m2 per household

theme: Waste

D: Normal

C: Limit the stream of waste

B: Minimize INTO and OUT OF

A: complete cyclical process

The themes of this method of four variants can be further detailed into various sub-themes:

sub-theme: Ecological structure

D: hardly any attention

C: attention, but no money

B: equal to human needs

A: priority over other interests

sub-theme: non-motorized transport

D: flexible, therefore rest item

C: determining structure

B: + priority

A: + only form of transport

sub-theme: Electricity supply

D: large scale power stations

C: "total energy" principle

B: + place for PV (photovoltaic cells) / wind outside town

A: only wind and solar cells

sub-theme: mounting kit housing

D: plaster, chipboard, melamine

C: no polyurethane, PVC, formaldehyde, etc.

B: + flexible mounting kit, wood A: wood, adobe, wood oil, wax

On the basis of this method of four variants Sustainable Building has been and is being carried out in various places in the Netherlands. These are research projects, such as studies on building costs of ecological building and on possibilities of ecological upkeep for the NOV (Nederlands Christeiijk Instituut voor Volkshuisvesting / Dutch Christian Institute for Public Housing). Housing projects such as Morrapark in Drachten (100 houses), Ecodus in Delft (250 houses) and Nieuwland in Amersfoort (5,000 houses) are under construction.

Also in non-residential building projects such as the State College of Agriculture in Leeuwarden by PRO -architects the variety of environmental possibilities is structured this way. When designing in variants a computer may be of great help, for generating variants on a screen is relatively easy.

The new 'IMAGO' (Integration of Milieu Aspects in the Built Environment) For a long time ecological building, including its design, has had the image of "grass roofs, do-it-yourself building and kitchen gardens". Many "modem" architects thought this the main obstacle when thinking of building and the environment. Fortunately extremes are evidently meeting. Firms such as OMA and Mecanoo apply vegetation roofs in a museum in Japan and in a plan for the new university library respectively. A high-tech architect like professor M. Zwarts makes use of organic shapes (of trees) carried out in steel for a Metro station in Rotterdam.

Besides these unexpected combinations there are more architects who apply themes of Sustainable Building. Architects such as Lafour en Wijk and Theo Bosch apply passive solar energy by means of excellent orientation. In Prinsenland Rotterdam Mecanoo is building a whole neighbourhood orientated towards the south.

These are promising developments, but there is still a lot to do for the new 'IMAGO' (Integratie van Milieu-Aspecten in de Gebouwde Omgeving = Integration of Environmental Aspects in the Built Environment) by thinking in systems and designing in variants.


  • BOOM: Energiebewust Ontwerpen van Nieuwbouwwoningen [Vademecum] iov Novem by Sittard/Utrecht/Apeldoorn. Delft september 1992

  • Bouwens, C. en Dubbeling, M.: "Het experiment". In het themanummer Duurzaam Bouwen. Bouw nr. 2 januari 1993

Dorrestein A. (ed): Ontwikkelingsplan Nieuwland, Gemeente Amersfoort, augustus 1992 Dorrestein A. (ed): Basisdocumenten Nieuwland, Gemeente Amersfoort, augustus 1992

  • Drok, M.., Duijvestein CAJ,: Duurzaam Bouwen op Grote Schaal. (in opdracht van de Gemeente Amersfoort en de Stuurgroep Experimenten Volkshuisvesting) Delft, mei 1993. Duijvestein CAJ: Ecologisch Bouwen, SOMgroep Faculteit Bouwkunde TU Delft, feb 1993

  • Duijvestein CAJ, Teeuw, P e.a.: Blokboek IMAGO, (Integratie van MilieuAspecten in de Gebouwde Omgeving) Facuiteit Bouwkunde, TU Delft, februari 1994

  • Gommans L: Werkboek Eco-Design-Tools voor de woningbouw, SOM/PEBI, TU Delft 1993 Grontmij nv: Milieu-effectrapport voor de bouwlocatie Nieuwland to Amersfoort. Zeist, juli 1991

- ISP SOM1: Stadsontwerp en milieu, een catalogue van milieumaatregeien, afdeling Bouwkunde, TU Delft 1979

- ISP SOM3: Stadsontwerp en milieu, SOM3 rapport, afdeling Bouwkunde, TU Delft april 1982 - lsraels. E., Overbeek G. van, Duijvestein CAJ: De Bouw-kostenconsequenties van het ecoiogsch bouwen van eengezinswoningen. BOOM, Delft. NCIV, Ede, 1990

- Leeuwen, Chr G van: Coilegedictaat Ecologie. afdeling Bouwkunde, Delft 1982

- Ministerie VROM ea: Nationaal Milieubeieidsplan plus. Tweede Kamer, 21 137. Den Haag, '90 - Ministerie VROM ea: Notitie Instrumentarium bij Nationaai Milieubeleidsplan plus. Rapportage Duurzaam Bouwen. Tweede Kamer, 21 137 Den Haag, 1990

  • Reijenga, T., Stofberg, F., Duijvestein CAJ: Bouvvmaterialen en Milieu. SDU Den Haag. 1990 - RIVM, F. Langeweg ed.: Zorgen voor morgen, nationale milieu-verkenningen 1985-2010. Samson H.D. Tjeenk Willink, Aiphen aan de Rijn 1988

  • Tisma, A: A computer based planning for the re-use of agricultural land, with case-study of Randstad and West Brabant. SOM-group, Faculty of Architecture. Delft, aprii 1 993

  • Tomasek, W.: Die stadt ais Oekosystem; Ueberlegungen zum Vorentwurf Landschaftsplan KbIn; Landschaft + Stadt 11 (2) 1979

  • Udo de Haes, H.A.: Milieukunde, Begripsbepaling en Afbakening. in Basisboek Milieukunde. vierde druk, Boom, Meppel, 1991

  • Vries, G de Definities van milieuvriendelijk bouwen; (i. o. v. SBR) Concept, V&L Consultants, Rotterdam, maart 1993.

Re-allocation of buildings from a conservationists point of view by drs. A.L.L.M. Asselbergs

History is an indispensable resource for the development of the built-up environment. It is not only indispensable for the explanation of the urban structure and its architecture, but also -and more important- for a deeper apprehension of the socio-economic process leading to today's appearance. In most cases, the effects of this process are still recognizable in the cultural environment, but the urban and architectural quality nearly break down under the great social and economic burden. Unemployment, poor housing conditions, buildings without a proper function, pauparization in general, social aggregation, traffic suffocation an uncertain social-economic policy are a major threat to the urban structure.

The Netherlands have a planning tradition. The Low Countries devolepped from a delta of the European rivers Rhine and Meuse. The main problem has always been (and still is) surviving flooding and protection against it. Only in a cooperative way it was possible to safeguard the community against these threats. "Polderboards" with a (necessary) democratic structure -everyone had to participate- were established as early as the thirteenth century. By constructing dikes along the rivers and some part of the seacoast, and by developing reclaimed land (polders), they influenced a national administration based upon decentralization and (economic) planning strategies. On behalf of the infrastructure (dikes, on wich roads were constructed, canals, regulated rivers and harbours) the main economic items were trade and transport, supported by agriculture. Not only the (bourgeois) towns were man-made, but also the country-side. Through the centuries they have been re-used or developed. This did not exclude new developments, but in most situations they are closely adapted to the existing environment.

Based on the ideas of cultural continuity and re-allocation, modern conservation policy is aimed at land development, urban planning and architecture. From a legal point of view the protection of towns and villages (with the obligation of drawing up a development plan) made it necessary to consider urban renewal schemes. Although the first concern of urban renewal is the improvement of impoverished living conditions, it stimulates the re-allocation (and therefore the conservation) of the historic urban fabric and building structures. Therefore today's conservation policy is not limited of the re-allocation of individual buildings, but considers the built and rural environment as a whole. In fact it is adapting the excisting cultural values.

The cultural component has become an inseperable part of the physical planning process.

Curriculum vitae drs. A.L.L.M.Asselbergs

Before being appointed as the director of the "Rijksdienst voor de Monumentenzorg" (governmental service responsible for Dutch monuments), mister A.L.L.M. Asselbergs has fulfilled various functions in the field of research and documentation. He explored (the history of) architecture and culture.

Mister Asselbergs is also alderman in the town of Amersfoort, and as such responsible for rural planning, urban renewal, monuments and culture. From 1978 till 1979 he was also responsible for educational affairs in Amersfoort.

Mister Asselbergs is chairman of a number of organisations dealing with architecture and culture. He participates in several other organisations as a common member and takes a lively interest in all recent developments in the field.

Real estate is re-use ? by prof H. de Jonge (summary page)

The Chicago declaration of the UIA congress in June 1993 specifically states the importance of sustainable building in the light of our environmental problems. This seminar concentrates on a specific aspect of sustainablity: the re-use of existing buildings. Therefore in this paper we will look into the existing stock of buildings in The Netherlands, future developments and ways to deal with real estate in the light of re-usability.

Existing stock

After World War II the demographic explosion caused a big demand for educational buildings. With limited resources available accommodation-policy was based on volume, speed and investment levels. Of more than 30 million square metres gross floor area (GFA) in educational buildings in The Netherlands the majority comes from the sixties and seventies. Those buildings are facing a lot of functional and technical problems. We have to accept that many buildings will be obsolete in the next decades. In view of those problems re-use and redevelopment of buildings will be viable for a small group of buildings.


The industrial countries of the Western Hemisphere are rapidly changing. Their economies are growing towards post-industrialism. These changes demand different education. Post-experience training and in-company training will become prevalent.

This all requires more flexible task-oriented organizations that operate in temporal structures. The demand for accommodation therefore is very flexible. The process of decentrelization, mergers of institute and more autonomous behavior are introducing financial risks for institutes at a time they are often launching new projects. Information technology is introducing new forms of education like distant learning, individual learning, etc. This will affect the demand for accommodation. Through physical planning we try to control mobility of people. Urban concentration and stimulation of public transport are vital in that policy. This has a large impact on educational accommodation.

Re-use of buildings

Re-use of buildings cannot be treated as a mere technological or architectural problem. Underlying economic processes define the viability of redevelopment. Redevelopment is feasible when the location is right, the guaranteed lease term is approximately 20 years and the lessee is financially healthy. Finally we have to learn from the past how to design buildings with future value. Strategies for doing so are given in the paper.

REAL ESTATE IS RE-USE? (full text)

prof. ir. Hans de Jonge

Director Research and Development Government Rijksgebouwendienst

Professor of Real Estate Management and Development Delft University of Technology


The Chicago declaration of the UIA congress in June 1993 specifically states the importance of sustainable building in the light of our environmental problems. This seminar concentrates on a specific aspect of sustainability: the re-use of existing buildings. Therefore in this paper we will look into the existing stock of buildings in The Netherlands, future developments and ways to deal with real estate in the light of re-usability.


Real estate is the footprint of society: the way we work, live, educate, recreate and move about is printed in and on the surface of the earth. What are the archeologists of the year 3000 going to conclude about our society? One thing is for sure: they will notice that in a very short span of time the industrialized countries of the western world have added an enourmous quantity of houses, buildings, roads, bridges, etc. The past five decades have been decades of growth in economy, population and intensity of traffic. In The Netherlands we have with ± 15 million people roughly 6 million houses, 1.3 million buildings, 120.000 km roads and railroads and 1 million km of pipes, ducts and sewers.

After the second World War the demographic explosion caused a big demand for educational buildings. With the limited resources and growth in pupils that had to decline within one generation the accommodation policy was based on volume targets and investment levels. Rationalization and standardization became commonplace. On relatively cheap locations we have erected buildings in series, semi-permanent buildings and emergency buildings. To give a few numbers: we have about 30.6 million square meters GFA (Gross Floor Area) of educational buildings. 1.8 million square meters is leased space (6%), the rest is owned space of which 1.1 million square meters represent emergency buildings.

By far the largest proportion of those buildings has been erected in the sixties and seventies. Because they have been erected with speed, volume and budget in mind they tend to offer more and more problems in terms of maintenance and durability. A remarkable achievement has been made in accommodating an explosive number of pupils in a relatively short time frame. Durability has not been an issue then and even if we would have known what we know now, it is questionable whether we could have afforded a different approach. Fact is that today we are confronted with a stock of educational buildings that is offering problems in terms of functional and technical life time. In fig. 1 three types of life times are given for a changing organization. The functional life time of a building is the timespan within which an organization can operate without major changes in the building. The top graph shows the growth and decline of one userorganization. It abandons the building because there is an under-utilization.

In the second graph is shown the development in the technical performance related to the first graph. The technical life time is the timespan within which the building meets the technical performace criteria in a given maintenance strategy. The required performance is not only depending upon the user but also heavily upon regulations. Safety regulations make buildings into longlasting products. At the points in time that the functional performance of the building is adjusted (years 10, 20 and 30) reinvestments take place. The third graph shows the economic performance of the building. The economic life time is the timespan within which the building meets the return-on-investment criteria. Each time when functional and technical adjustments in the performance are made the expenditure and revenue figures change. In the past decades the technical life time was as long as 50 years for structure and shell. Nowadays in some cases buildings with an age of 12-15 years have been demolished to give way to new construction. The average functional life time is becoming shorter and is connected with a return on investment that has to come in quicker.

Shortening the technical life-time of the building will reduce the quality but not proportionally the costs: it is in fact destruction of capital investment. Generally the fiscal systems do not allow the speed of writing off for depreciation that goes with the functional wear of buildings.


In view of what has been said about the character of the existing stock it is clear that re-use of existing buildings is only partly interesting. We will have to accept that there are many existing buildings that simply will have no future because they are not needed from a functional or economic point of view.

On the other hand there are quite a few interesting buildings in the older part of the stock that have the capacity to be redeveloped because of cultural, functional and technical properties of the buildings and very specifically their locations.


In a brief overview we will go into major developments that affect the demand for buildings:

  • economy dynamics

  • information technology physical planning

environmental issues


The industrialized countries of the Western hemisphere are rapidly changing. Their economies grow towards post-industrial ones in a global context. "Head-body-tail economies" are emerging:

head: - product development & research (knowledge intensive high-tech) body: - high volume-low price production

assembly of parts that come from all over the world

tail: - distribution and after sales service

high-tech logistics

These shifts in economy create a demand for different educational qualities. Permanent education, post-experience training and in-company training are of increasing importance.


The changing demand for education requires more flexible task-oriented organizations that operate in projectteams on a temporal basis. The demand for accommodation therefore is flexible. It will be more and more difficult to make long term forecasts of studentnumbers per type of education.

Another major change is the process of decentralization and the increase of autonomy for educational organizations. In this way decisions are brought from central government level to local level or institution level. This process is going on in combination with mergers between institutions. Decisions with relationship to accommodation are more and more taken by the institutions themselves. The related risks are also their problem now.

information technology

The developments in information technology are creating possibilities for new forms of education like distant learning, individual learning and simulating reality trough modelling. We can expect those new forms to emerge in the next few decades. This will affect the demand for educational facilities, student housing and family housing.


physical planning

In the past decades we have planned our cities in a 'functional way" with all seperate functions in seperate locations with designated purposes. The creation of urban centres and living communities at distance has created mobility by car or public transport till we now have reached the level of suffocation. Physical planning in The Netherlands aims to concentrate new developments in urban areas and to reduce mobility by car and stimulate public transport. The latter development has a lot a meaning for educational facilities since they attract a lot of visitors.

environmental issues

Finally environmental considerations are of increasing importance. A changing demand will have to be taken care of with relatively static buildings that have to be more durable.


In the light of the changes described above it is obvious that we cannot treat the re-use qi buildings as a mere technological or architectural problem. Underlying economic processes define the viability of redevelopment. We have to face the fact that the majority of educational buildings will become redundant in the next decades. The first large institutions that grew from mergers started to develop plans for new accommodation, leaving existing buildings behind that very often are of no use anymore. If there is no cultural-historic reason to extend the life of the building it will be demolished with all the environmental consequences of that.

Redevelopment is very well possible if:

location is right

garanteed use for a period of 20 years exists

the lessee is financially healthy

Finally, we have to look into the new buildings we are going to make. How do we cope with the changes that are described above in the design or purchase of new buildings? There are a numer of ways to cope with the tension between dynamic demand and relatively static supply. In the context of this paper we only mention a few:


change operational hours

better space use distant learning

real estate stock

use right mix of leased and owned space

try to cluster functional groups in such a way that specific parts of the building are concentrated

work with differentiated depreciation in a fiscal approach according to functional wear

  • make distinction between locations with potential future value and unique dedicated locations.

  • on location with potential future value make durable infra structure, structure and shell; use infill systems to accommodate change

  • on "dedicated" locations use demountable, reusable building elements

think of residual value in twenty years from now.


If we go back to the question in the title of this paper we are able to say now that real estate does not automatically means re-use. We conclude with three statements:

  1. we tend to look at nice examples of redevelopment and tend to forget about the vast majority of uninteresting buildings in our building stock.

  2. redevelopment will only take place if there is financial viability through private investment of government subsidy.

  3. we tend to concentrate on building level. The urban tissue, location, infrastructure and public transport are often underestimated in the feasibility of options.

Spatial relations between town and college by mr. C.J.D. Waal

Using Deventer, Rotterdam and Leiden as models, an outline will be given of the interdependency between towns and colleges in terms of environmental planning.

The larger the college, the more restrictive the municipal environmental planning is felt to be. New regulations make it ever more difficult to integrate the college into the existing town. The larger the college, the more the educational function must benefit the town or town centre. Educational facilities can prevent functional losses and impoverishment of town centres, and can spur on revitalization. Thanks to education, buildings worth of preservation can be given a new destination and be consequently preserved. The liveliness of the town centre depends largely on the presence of students.

In Deventer, Rotterdam and Leiden the Institutions of higher Education have opted deliberately for planned intergration in the town centre. Building outside town ­although cheaper - has been expressly rejected. An attractive town centre location is favourable for the image of the educational institutions. Surely a town centre location inspires students and lecturers to a more socially-committed attitude?

When choosing a location, the accessibility of the location by public transport is an aspect that is becoming increasingly significant. In Rotterdam there is an underground close to the school, which is an essential feature. In Deventer and Leiden the accessibility of the institutions by bike play an important role- as does the immediate vicinity of the railway station.

A commom element shared by the three model towns, is the attention paid to the quality of the area surrounding the educational facilities. A permanent residence in the centre of town is impossible without the active cooperation of the municipal council, particularly when dealing with policies concerning zoning plans, land plans and land prices. The municipal council also plays a crucial role in the re-allocation of former educational buildings. The municipality and the educational institutions need a communal environmental frame of reference.

The models Deventer, Rotterdam and Leiden show clearly that it is a mistake to believe that a modern building is more suitable for education than an older building. Renovation, one hastens to add, does not always prove to be more sensible than demolition and rebuilding. A better use of the quality locations already present, is profitable for both educational institutions and town. Contemporary additions and adjustments may turn out to be improvements.

Curriculum vitae mr. C.J.D. Waal

Cees J.D. Waal (50) studied law in Leiden. As a lecturer at Leiden University his subjects included Roman Law.

From 1974 to 1984 Cees Waal was a town councillor for the municipality of Leiden. As chairman of the executive committee for environmental planning, public works, traffic and urban renewal, Cees Waal was closely involved in the Leiden University housing plans. He was also deputy-mayor and, for some time, acting as mayor of Leiden.

From 1984 to 1993 Cees Waal was mayor of Deventer, a town with a rich and varied educational tradition.

Since November 1993 Cees Waal has been chairman of the Board of Governors of the Rotterdam College of Higher Education. The new College of Higher Education faces complex housing problems.

Cees Waal is also a member of the government commission dealing with historic buildings and ancient monuments and a member of the commission dealing with passenger traffic.

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