Breda-02: Seminar on 20/21je94
List of cases
Case 'De Pont' by W.M. Crouwel 16
Case 'De Maagd' by 0. Greiner 17
Case 'Town Hall of Bishop Auckland' by B. Ainsworth 18
Case 'Wolters Noordhoff' by K. Rijnboutt 19
Case 'New Life for Older Schools' by John J. Castellana 20
Case 'University Library Bucarest' by P. Svoboda 21
Case 'Het Arsenaal' by Tj. Dijkstra 22
Case 'New life for Michael's Hill' by Y. Hertz 23
Case 'Sustainable urban planning' by A.W. Hartman 24
Case 'Re-allocation of two educational buildings' by J. Schneider 25
Case 'IJpelaar by L. Rienks 26
Museum De Pont in an old wool mill by W.M. Crouwel
One of the business involvements of J.H. de Pont concerned the wool-spinning mill Thomas de Beer in the city of Tilburg. Much to his satisfaction the mill was able to function again in 1969. A few years later, after his death in 1987, it was necessary to close down the mill. The fact that the mill complex now houses the art foundation that bears his name would certainly have given him great pleasure. One of the primary aims of the De Pont foundation is to form a collection of comtemporary art, according to the last will of Mr. de Pont, within the Netherlands and abroad.
Due to the solitary way which it is situated at a slight angle on an enclosed plot, the building of the former Thomas de Beer wool mill, which is the remainder of a much larger factory complex, has a certain mysteriousness: a perculiar closed box that reveals nothing about its interior. The mill was still in use when we came their in the early part of 1990. The process of transforming raw wool into yarn determined the layout of the complex in a very logical and simple manner.
Because of this process, there is a characteristic alternation of spaces. First the large storage rooms for the wool, then a wide and high corridor, an area with smaller storage rooms, and then a vast open area with skylights. The condition of the factory made it necessary to carry out a total renovation and rebuilding. In terms of its structure and physical presence, the building had all the distinguishing characteristics of a Dutch factory: functionally and technically, there was no more than was absolutely necessary. This is why the roof and the floor of the large hall were completely renovated and all the walls restored.
The guiding principal in the rebuilding has been to retain the character of the building as much as possible, on the one hand due to the usefulness of the spaces and, on the other, to preserve something of the past. By way of three simple breaks trough walls, the routing was optimized and a line of sight from the entrance was effected, making it possible to read the outer dimensions of the building on entering it.
All the additional constructions are designed as being seperate from the building in order to maintain the distinction between the existing structure and additions. The tone of all the facilities oriented to the public is silver grey or the natural color of steel and contrasts with the rough brick building. A great deal of stainless steel was used, due to its quality, its suitability for intensive use and the association with the previous function of the building. The elements are purely functional and do not monopolize the atmosphere of the interior.
New installations, wiring and pipes have been concealed as much as possible, so that the building, as a bare structure, is able to constitute a non-distractive, natural accomodation for the art.
Each of the exhibition spaces has a character of his own. The corridor with the large storage vaults for wool has been sandblasted, so that the color of the red brick is dominant. In contrast to this, the smaller wool storage spaces have been finished in white and given parquet floors. In the large open area a dark, concrete floor has been poured; the existing steel structure remained its original silver grey.
The new spaces in the open area have been made with free-standing walls, that are 365 cm. in height and remain below the fragile truss construction. Because of this, the separate rooms continue to be a part of a larger space. Moreover, the walls are placed in such a way that the extended lines of sight are maintained and the main space is kept intact as an entity.
Company Profile Benthem Crouwel Architekten BV
Benthem Crouwel is a dynamic and expanding practice of architects and building engineers, established by Jan Benthem and Mels Crouwel in 1979.
The firm has an international reputation for very functional though exciting architecture, extensively using modern technology in a humane way. Building is for the future, not for the past !
The office aims to be a very versatible problemsolver. The skills of the present 18 employees, 13 of whom are university graduates cover the complete field of architectural design. Projects range from urban design and infrastructure projects, public service and office buildings to social housing, interior design, restauration and productdevelopment.
Roman Catholic Church as Theater
by Onno Greiner
When one plans to rebuild a Roman Catholic Church into a theatre, one can bear in mind a few considerations:
Is it desirable to use a consecrated building, a church, in which people have prayed for 160 years, for another purpose?
If the Community decides to do so, does the architect then have a moral reponsibility, or not?
In the case of 'De Maagd' in Bergen op Zoom, there was the choice between building a shopping arcade, a carpet shop or a theatre. A theatre was chosen.
The architect considers that rebuilding a church as a theatre is no longer as strange as it might seem ( after a conference in Delhi 'Concepts of Space'): the Atlantic Theatre (theatre as we know it today), is a direct descendant of the Greek theatre (religous origin) and the Christion religion: the
development of theatre space is typically European and runs almost parallel to the development of religous space in Europe (and later in the Atlantic Christian world).
In Bergen op Zoom the case is rather special: the Roman Catholic church was taken from the Roman Catholics by the Protentants at the end of the 16th century, during the 80-years war - a war of liberation - which was partly a religous war. The Spanish (Roman Catholic) army was defeated and the Dutch Roman Catholics were persecuted. (King Philip II of Spain was a devout Catholic). The Gothic Basilica became this Protestant Church. Until 1828 the Roman Catholics had no church of their own. King William I gave them a church, 'De Maagd`.
From 1828 to 1987 this was a Roman Catholic Church. In 1987 the Gothic church was restored and this once again became the Roman Catholic cathedral, (The Protestant no longer needed a church in the centre) and 'De Maagd' was handed back to the town of Bergen op Zoom. This made the church available for change of use. But meanwhile it had to become a National Monument. Then the question arose: what do we do with it? (architect porposes: concert hall). Town council decides: theatre for 650 people.
6. Question: can a theatre be built in the former church, while also preserving
the historic monument?
Architect's answer: yes, if no high demsnds are made. Fly tower must remain within the church roof, which is just possible.
height of vault 17.00 m.
stage opening 10.80 m.
first two bays: foyers + stairs
next three bays: hall
last two bays: stage
abscis: back stage
- youth group building: dressing rooms.
Architect decides to 'suspend' balconies between the colums, and to leave the church space as visible as possible.
Question: can a historic monument of this kind actually be used in a positive way? One may wonder whether this is a better use than building offices, as is customary: is there a big difference, or not?
Question: does the change of use contribute to greater longevity? Answer to this question: yes.
Company Profile Onno Greiner Martien van Goor Architekten by
In addition to its work on psychiatric clinics, hotels and offices, since 1960 the firm Onno Greiner Martien van Goor Architekten by has worked on 11 theatres and cultural centres, including the restoration of the oldest theatre in the Netherlands in Leiden (1705/1865), restoration and new building of Twentse Schouwburg Enschede, new theatres in Hoogeveen, Amersfoort, Sliedrecht, Biberach an der Riss (Germany) (realized competition, 1st prize), and Kevelaer (Germany); design of Opera Damascus (3rd prize), design of Opera House The Hague 1993/1994; (current projects), Greiner has developed a theory about the importance of the shape of voids in theatres (Munich 1978, New Delhi 1986, USA 1980 and 1986) in relation to communication and interaction.
The Town Hall of Bishop Auckland
by Bill Ainsworth
Bishop Auckland, County Durham, is a substantial market town in a fine position between the River Wear and the small River Gaunless. The Town Hall is part of a group buildings forming an island in the large Market Place. It was built in 1862. The original design, the result of a compitition, was by J.P. Jones with modifications by John Johnstone of Newcastle.
The external facade in the Franco-flemish style with corner towers, steeply pitched roofs incorporating dormer windows and a spirelet above the main entrance, has changed little in 130 years - although the interior has undergone several changes. The 1932, drawings uncovered indicate that the glazed roof of the market was removed and a new structure built over the market to accomodate the Council Chamber for the Bishop Auckland Rural District Council. The main hall was
referred to as a music hall.
The building was listed as Grade I by the Department of the Environment as a building of national Importance forming a part of the market place.
A survey and conditions report of the building was carried out in 1988 when evidence of cracking in the stone north wall at first floor level was reported. A system of restraining steel bracing was introduced at eaves level to the main hall to prevent any further outward movement of the wall - the result of gradual spreading of the feet of the raised collar trusses.
During 1990/1991, the owners of the building, Wear Valley District Council, entered into a joint initiative with Durham County Council - the objective of the project being to alter and refurbish the building in order to provide a multi-purpose complex of community facilities comprising a library, tourist information and consumer protection offices, a performance area, function and meeting rooms and a gallery and exhibition space.
The architects, Ainsworth Spark Associates, were succesful in a limited competition and appointed to progress with the scheme to restore and alter the building.
The main contract for the works was started in December 1991, following seperate and smaller contracts for stripping out and investigary works, asbestos removal, and archaeological evaluation (the Roman road known as 'Dere Street' runs close by). The building was complete in June 1993.
Works of art by local artists including a new set of iron gates and etched glass and tile work have been incorporated in the finished project.
The renovation, repairs and re-allocation of space usage have ensured the survival and much extended life of an important building and piece of the heritage of Bishop Auckland, maintaining the continuity of past and future generations.
Curriculum vitae W.R. Ainsworth
W.R. Ainsworth is the founding partner of Ainsworth Spark Associates, a multi-disciplinary design practice, in 1963. The practice has completed 2800 projects in that period in almost every building type.
Major recent works include the Rapid Transit System in Newcastle upon Tyne, including the Airport Station (approx. £ 400 million) and commenced construction of the only Test Match cricket ground to be build in this century for Durham County Cricket Club, first fase to be completed in 1995.
As a RIBA Vice President in 1988-1989 Bill Ainsworth was also Honorary Librarian to the British Architectural Library and Drawings Collection.
Reanimation of a skelton'
To choose for controlled partial demolition presupposes a buidling task which shows all the characteristics of an experiment. By buying the former Wolters Noordhoff printing works, the municipality of Groningen let themselves in for such an experiment.
The complex was designed as a whole and built in three phases by the civil engineer Arend G. Beltman in 1919: low buildings with a sawtooth roof (1919), an elongated building of two storeys (1928), with a third and fourth storey added in 1950. The architect Kees Rijnboutt was asked to investigate whether it would be possible to convert it into dwellings (1984). When this turned out to be infeasible, it was decided to change the programma: in order to alleviate the shortage of space among dance and theater groups in Groningen, rehearsel space was added as well as a car park. The local parties responsible had the courage to defend the qualitative norms which had been agreed on to the last breath and managed to withstand the financial and political pressure from above to downgrade the building.
The designer Kees Rijnboutt removed the third and fourth storeys and stripped the first and second storeys right down to the skeleton. This destructive deed showed how the spatial effect, the layout and access of light in the rest of the building remained untouched. The vital core provided the constructive points of departure for the incorporation of today's requirements: the skeleton carries and structures the entire building.
The spatial effect, the measurements and the use of materials in the oldest part of the building, including the sawtooth roof which hangs above the cultural activities like a heat shield, have been maintained and combined with the ground floor of the elongated housing block. All the facilities for cultural activities are concentrated here and separated from the living section, that is now allocated to the first and second storeys of the building.
Along this imposing axis, to one side offices and recreation rooms are arranged. On the other side the space under the sawtooth roof functions as a rehearsel area for the dance and theatre groups, separated by narrow deep alleyways, that prevent any bother from noise. In order to achieve the desired height, the practice rooms are sunk into the ground like bunkers.
1 by Koos Bosma, published in 'Architectuur in Nederland 1988-1989', summarized
Reanimation of a building damages its origin, but extends its history. As the man who gives form to today the designer must have the guts and be given the support to pull down the old trusted decor, in the knowledge that his architectural experiment can be once again assailed in another time. Whoever wants to make history live, has to treat it violently.
The office 'architectengroep Loerakker Rijnboutt Ruijssenaars Hendrinks bv' set up in 1956 and has a remarkable organization structure. The office is the collective property of the employees and the management. The most important characteristic of the office organization is that each of the four architects has the total responsibility, both internally and externally, for his design portefeuille. Each architect has a staff of between 10 to 20 draughts people.
In the office policy, the architectural design, in the sense of the concern for the quality of the built environment is of paramount importance. The office has commissions practically in all sectors. Housing projects constitute 25% of the bureau production in comparison to 75% in the seventies. For the construction, installations and building physics, external advisory offices are consulted.
The advantages of a large office are factors such as stability and continuity; and also the possibility to build up certain expertises, and a department responsible for specifications and budget estimates. In such a way the office is able to receive and totally carry out a complete commission.
New Life for Older Schools
by John J. Castellana
The revitalization of existing educational facilities is indeed a challenging and rewarding endeavor. Preserving our heritage by interjecting 'NewLife' into older structures enables facolities to once again serve society. Using sound design principles, architects are able to focus on positive aspects of an existing facility while improving the overall.
Our office, TMP Associates,Inc., Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, U.S.A. has been involved with numerous revitalization projects over our 35 year history. I would like to share with some relevant examples.
In this abstract I will already name one example:
Cranbrook Educational Community, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, U.S.A. Gordon Hall of Science
Eliel Saarinen's Masterpiece has provided us the opportity to respectfully adapt and upgrade facilities to make them appropriate learning centers for today's students. TMP was responsible for designing an addition to the Cranbrook Boys School and transforming an existing industrial arts structure into a viable science instructional faciliy. The former Linguist Hall was a simple, flat roofed rectangular building set in a lovely, tranquil courtyard.
In order not to disturb the court, new facilities were housed in two wings from thhe ends of the renovated building. A glass-enclosed corridor connects the three forms and serves as an exhibition/reception area. The academic/laboratory addition contions four main laboratories for biology, physics, chemistry and earth science in addition to classrooms, prep rooms and faculty offices. Other significant features include a computer resource center and a science library. The materials used are compatible with the elegant campus - buckskin colored brick, copper roofing and oak doors. A commitment to satisfying today's needs in am manner compatible with yesterday's insperation made this a success.
For Cranbrook also a 16,000 square feet gymnasium was converted into a Performing Arts Center.
All of the examples to be presented physically show the benefit of giving older faciliies a 'New Life'. Of greater importance, however is the fact that with these re-allocations, our heritage and society and society as a whole are enhanced.
Curriculum vitae John J. Castellana
John Castellana has a very impressive portfolio of accomplishments in the architectural field. He has been a member of TMP Associates of Bloomfield Hills for over 20 yeciars and is now Vice President of Design.
John received his Bachelor of Architecture degree from Kent State University in 1971 and in 1972 received a Master's Architecture degree from the University of Illinois. He is a registered architect in Michigan, Ohio, Arizona, Colorado, California, Louisiana, and holds NCARB certification.
As a result of his expertise and accomplishments in the field of architecture, John was named Young Professional of the Year in 1978 by Building Design and Construction magazine and more recently, was elected to the College of Fellows by the American Institute of Architects.
He is an active member of various professional societies, including the American Institute Architects, Michigan Society of Architects, the AIA National Committee on Architecture for Education, where he served as Chairman during 1989-1990 and is currently a representative of the 'Union Internationale des Architects' work group 'Espaces Educatifs et Culturels', the American Assocation of School Administrators, and the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International.
The restoring and extension of the Central University Library Bucharest by Petre Swoboda
The block of buildings of the Central University Library in Bucharest exists of 3 buildings:
The construction of the old building of the library began in 1895 and was finished in 1914. Following the plans of the French architect Paul Gotterau, it was built in Louis XIV style. For almost a centrury it has represented the cultural and university tradition of Bucharest. Equipped with reading halls for 110 readers and with bookracks/stackrooms for 300,000 volumes, the building can seat 500 people for conferences in the smart assembly hall. The building takes up an area of 7,910 sqm. During the events of December 1989, the building was almost entirely destroyed by fire. It was reconstructed after the original design, although some of the inner decorations and roof decorations exists only on photographs.
The adjacent building to Boteanu Street has also been assigned to the Central University Library, or to be more precise the part of the building that was not demolished after the events. The building belongs to the same epoch (1895) and it once accomodated the premises of a Bank. The building covers an area of 2043 sqm and it houses the functional administrative services.
After the events of December 1989, the extension of the building was appropriate and possible at the same time. The extended building will have the entrance for readers in C.A. Rosetti Street and it is going to be built around a central hall with basement and ground floor. It is four-storeyed and in the area of stack-rooms six-storeyed. The extended surface provides 360 seats in the reading and references hall and space for 1,500,000 volumes. The building takes up 12,500 sqm.
The three buildings will be interconnected, so all activities should be executed easily. The necessary conditions to this end are provided for by the automation of the library and by the installation of a transport system of an elevator type.
The cultural and aesthetic value of the buildings, placed in the centre of Bucharest, commits us to renovate and modernize the pile, even if the cost exceeds the cost of a new building on another emplacement.Curriculum vitae Petre Swoboda
Petre Swoboda was born on the 7th of May, 1934 in Bucharest. In 1958 he graduated at the Architecture Institute of Bucharest.
1958-1966 (Project Bucharest): Projects for blocks of flats, Exhibition Dalles, Polytechnic Institute of Bucharest, joint author with academician Professor Octav Doicescu.
1964-1976: Assistant lecturer, Architecture Institute of Bucharest.
1966-1984 (Design Institute, Ministry of Education): Greenhouses at the Botanical Gardens of Bucharest: electronics Faculty of Timisoara:
Chemistry Institute, Constantine, Algeria: Student houses in Timisoara, Bucharest, Petrosani: Supervisor of Project.
1984-1990 (Design Institute Carpati): People's houses, joint author.
1990- (PRINCER-S.A.): restoring and extension of the Central University Library Bucharest, Supervisor of project.
SPATIAL RELATIONS BETWEEN CITY AND SCHOOL
Presentation held by Mr. C.J.D. Waal, chairman of the Board of Governors of the Rotterdam Polytechnic on the seminar "Redestination of Buildings" in Breda, June 21, 1994.
One of the favourite quotes of Dutch governors comes from England and says: "Town and Gown never meet". It is suggested as though universities and polytechnics on the one hand and city and city institutions on the other, are two separate worlds. And it looks as though people enjoy cultivating an opposition between the two. In reality there have been strong relations between cities and schools through the centuries. This particularly goes for spatial relations. Put in different words: city governors have always concernced themselves intensively with the housing of the polytechnics of university in their city. School governors have exerted themselves to give the city a spatial imprint to their preference.
In my presentation I will make references to the cities of Deventer, Leyden and Rotterdam. In these cities large housing problems for higher education have recently been dealt with or are still being dealt with.
The city of Deventer holds about 70,000 inhabitants and has a related region of about 130,000 people. It is situated on the river IJssel, 100 kms. east of Amsterdam on the route to Berlin. Deventer as an imperial Free Hanze City was one of the major trading cities in the German Hanze. As you will know this Hanze was, in the Middle Ages, a union of cooperation of tens of cities in predominantly North and North-Eastern Europe (from Bruges to Novgorod). The favourable economic development of the city coincided with the cultural revival; Deventer was given a central role for education amongst other things. Amongst the Deventer students of the famous Latin school in the 15th century was Desiderius Erasmus, who later gave his name to the University of Rotterdam. The Spanish King Philip the Second, who was also Lord of The Netherlands, considered to found the first North-Dutch University in Deventer. The Dutch Revolt changed the course of events; in 1575 the first university was founded in Leyden. Deventer, however, kept major educational functions. In our age Deventer is internationally famous, i.e. in Indonesia and other developing countries, in particular because of its education in tropical agriculture. In the middle of the eighties 7 institutions for higher vocational education merged into IJsselland Polytechnic. The housing of this new Polytechnic of about 4,500 students, is now in its last stage. I will come back to this.
Leyden is the prototype of a Dutch city with canals. It has the largest historic inner city of The Netherlands second to Amsterdam. It is situated on the Old Rhine and holds about 110,000 inhabitants; its related region is about 200,000 people. We saw that Leyden University was founded
) 2as the first in The North-Netherlands in 1575. It still has a leading position in Europe. It now has more than 20,000 students. Because of the predominant position of the University in Leyden City little attention has been paid to other forms of higher education. Higher vocational education in Leyden is modest. Higher vocational technical education does not even exist there, even though an engineering school was founded by Simon Stevin in 1600. Technical education at university level is in Delft. Higher vocational technical education in The Hague and Rotterdam.
You are all familiar with Rotterdam as the largest port in the world. The city on the River Meuse is undoubtedly in her appearance the most modern city of The Netherlands. It holds almost 600,000 inhabitants, with an related region of well over 1,000,000 people.
These three cities are examples in point of the great discrepancy between the related region and the border of jurisdiction of the city. This is a phenomenon which all older large and medium size cities have to deal with. It is a fundamental problem of Dutch cities. Developers of large buildings may be "troubled" by the consequencies of governing problems: they may have to choose between either being located in different municipalities or accepting the narrow possibilities of the central municipality. Central municipalities are always financially poor and therefore not always accomodating in negotiations about e.g. ground prices or maintenance of public space.
Rotterdam's tradition in Higher Education is less rich than that of deventer or Leyden. Yet the oldest of the schools which now form Rotterdam Polytechnic dates back to the end of the 18th century. Particularly after World War II Higher Education in Rotterdam has shaped up. Erasmus University is only some decades old; students number about 20,000. The majority of Higher Education is part of the Rotterdam Polytechnic. This Polytechnic came into existence in 1988 in a merger of 19 institutions. Now its students number about 13,000.
)Dutch cities highly value the establishment of higher education. There is a famous anecdote about the city of Leyden. After they had bravely resisted the Spanish siege in 1574, the population is alleged to have had the choice between tax freedom or a university. The city is believed to have chosen for a university. This story may not be true, but it does testify to the importance of the presence of higher education. Of old, city governors have expected positive economic effects. These days the effect on the level of schooling is also considered to be of great importance; all the more so since institutions for higher education appear to have a particularly regional function. Also from the point of view of spatial planning a city benefits by the presence of higher education. Higher education generates livelyness. A city without students is a dull city; this is shown by Dutch examples which 1 am not going to mention.
3In an inner city higher education can also have the function of preventing impoverishment or of providing a stimulus for revitalisation. In the historic inner city of Leyden a distinct difference of the urban quality between several parts of the inner city can be noted. The parts of the Leyden inner city which are spatially strongest, are precisely those parts where institutions of the university have been concentrated. In the Leyden inner city the university has repeatedly given new life to existing buildings by re-using them. When founded the University benefited by the loss of function of monasteries. The image building of Leyden University still is the Old Nunnery. Also the Witte Singel/Doelen-project, a major buidling operation in the existing city, was made possible by the loss of other functions (in particular hospital and barracks function).
In Deventer the new building of Usselland Polytechnic is the first concrete realisation of the so-called Grachtengordel-project. This is an ambitious project for the redevelopment of an area between the historic inner city and the station. It is an ideal location, at least according to the theories of Dutch spatial planning policy. However, the soil is extremely polluted. Cleaning will require many tens of millions of guilders. The subproject IJsselland Polytechnic has been the lever to make a real start with cleaning the soil and the redevelopment of the area.
In Rotterdam the "Kop van Zuid"-project on the South Bank is under development now. It is to be a project of international stature. Stimulation of the Kop van Zuid, however, may cause loss of function elsewhere in the city, particularly when the office market is slack. For the buildings which are coming free in the area around the Space Tower both higher education and the hospital are the most interesting functions.
It is by no means self-evident that governors of higher education choose for inner city locations. The Uithof in Utrecht and many foreign examples make this clear. The considerations to build educational institutions outside the city, or as governors sometimes put it, "in the green", are similar to those of housing.
The larger a building project or housing estate is, the more difficult it is to find a "grain" in an inner city which is sufficiently large for such a project to be realised. The smaller the scale of the city the more difficult. Larger sizes make finding adequate locations in an inner city more and more difficult. This does not only apply to education, but also to hospitals, and, currently, courts of justice.
Inner city projects carry more risks in terms of time and money than outer city projects. The risks have to do with matters such as participation in town planning procedures and environmental aspects such as pollution and noise. New requirements with regard to fire precautions and working conditions make adjustment of existing buildings and their re-use more and more difficult. The cost of adapting
)a new building to present insights can be enormous. Let us take the case of the high rise building of
in Rotterdam as an example in point. As you will know Unilever is an
Is it wise, in these conditions, to go for re-use? Would-not it be better to go for good and modern solutions on the same location?
Many people may ask: is the building so inferior? Was the housing of the board of executives of Unilever International so pathetic? It is the sum-total of several desires, which in themselves are not
which creates the problem. The construction-bureaucratic complex
turns every wish into
I now come to a phenomenon which has surprised me for years. The appreciation of cities like Venice, Bruges or Prague is common. According to the Michelin guide Dutch cities like Deventer and Leyden also belong to the old cities worth a visit. Rotterdam is interesting for its modern architecture. People come to these cities in great numbers; living in monuments is widely appreciated. Governors of public authorities, institutions and firms love working in a monument. Yet, according to the present rules these cities and buildings should or could not have been built. (Breaking them
is not allowed either, for that matter). When a building is a
protected monument, there is room
Another development seems to make building "in the green" with as little risc as possible appealing. The cost of housing which is subsidised by the national authorities to Polytechnics, is based on fixed norms. Deviation form these norms is at the risc of the Polytechnic. The bill of the disappointments in the renovation of the old Unilever building could be sent by Rotterdam Polytechnic to the Ministry of Education. In the new funding system Rotterdam Polytechnic has to pay for the disappointment
5itself, e.g. in the case of renovation of the high rise Unilever building. This would then go at the expense of education, which is being curtailed anyway. The normative costs which are being used, are obviously not based on teaching in re-used monasteries, hospitals, barracks, courts of justice and so on. The norm is of course the dreadfully dull building "in the green", which complies with the most recent prescription.
IJsselland Polytechnic as well as Rotterdam Polytechnic and Leyden University have expressly chosen for inner city locations. Why? I would like to mention a number of relevant considerations which have played a role. Not all considerations are rational, like emotional affection. Considerations cannot always be argued with factual data. E.g., Rotterdam Polytechnic finds it important to present an urban profile. The Polytechnic can be recognized in the city and is there. Students are confronted by the city. Does this contribute to students having a better understanding of the phenomenon of a city and of metropolitan problems? Does an inner city location contribute towards an attitude of cooperation among students and teachers more than a site on e.g. the old Rotterdam airport? From the point of view of the lawful task of higher education to promote a sense of social responsibility with students this is also a relevant question. Strikingly enough we know little about the relation between the location where students study and their education. What we can measure is whether students appreciate studying in an inner city. In its recruitment campaigns IJsselland Polytechnic expressly emphasizes the cosiness and atmosphere of the Deventer inner city. This strategy is based on research data. In the competition for the student the question where it is "fun" to study will draw more and more attention, in my opinion.
A consideration which in itself may be decisive, has to do with the question of: "How to get there". Inner city locations are within easier reach walking, by bike or by public transport than those in peripheral areas. (Changes in study grant systems will not enable students to go to the place of their education by car). In Deventer the new building adjoins the station. In Leyden all faculties are within easy reach of the central station. In Rotterdam a firm principle of Rotterdam Polytechnic is that the buildings be situated on the east-west undergound line. There is a concentration of buildings at Dijkzigt station; stations Blaak and Coolhaven are near Rotterdam Polytechnic locations.
In my opinion another fundamental consideration for an institution of higher education to be located in the inner city is the enlargement of the flexibility for the school itself. Enlargement of flexibility in a number of aspects. Schools for higher education have grown over the last years; will they keep doing so? The larger the size of a building and the less attractive its situation, the larger and more threatening the financial burden of a surplus of room will be. It is quite naïve to suppose that present new buildings will still be adequate in ten years' time according to the prescriptions, insights and
6social developments of the time. E.g., what will be the influence of technological developments?
In an inner city environment housing will have to be spread over several buildings; for these separate buildings a new user may be found. There may also be flexibility by using amenities in the vicinity. Deventer is an example in point. By the choice of the location it is possible to make use of the amenities of the nearby cultural centre with several meeting rooms and theatre facilities. The existing city- or atheneumlibrary, the oldest of Western Europe, can be used for IJsselland Polytechnic. (This library is situated in a previous monastary). Student facilities are concentrated in the premises at the city square De Brink, between the library and the new main building. The co-use of facilities which are already there, makes limitation of the size of new amenities possible. In my opinion enlargement of flexibility implies: going for spatial and architectonic quality. Quality buildings can develop or be given new functions. The age of a building is not decisive, nor its original function. The "old" part of Unilever has quality and again functions adequately. Previous monasteries in Leyden and Deventer are buildings where one feels at home for the education and library-function. Tjeerd Dijkstra will clarify how in the case of the Arsenaal in Leyden quality present was being put to use and how the building was enriched by modern additions and adaptations.
A housing policy aimed at the inner city can only be succesful if the municipality and the educational institution cooperate closely and have a frame of reference in common. The municipality plays an active and in principle determining role in the development of the planning framework, in particular of the zoning plan. In such a zoning plan a municipality can give the educational institution space, litterally and figuratively. A zoning plan may also be too strict a strait-jacket. In practice the municipality functions as an "agent", which brings functions and buildings together and thus stimulates the re-use of buildings. In addition the municipality is most likely the lot-owner with whom the school has to negotiate. The municipality is responsible for the quality of the open space around the educational premises. This does not only refer to the right of laying pavement tiles or cutting the shrubs. In Rotterdam e.g. it is crucial that the municipality see to it that the prostitution on the doorstep of one of the buildings of Rotterdam Polytechnic disappear, not only intentionally but also factually.
In Rotterdam a communicative structure between municipality and Rotterdam Polytechnic is going to be started. The outline of the housing policy of Rotterdam Polytechnic is becoming clearer. Essentially housing is aimed at in a limited number of kernels along the east-west underground line in the inner city. Around Dijkzigt station an urban campus is developing, which consists of the "old" Unilever building and the building of Higher Nautical and Technical Education on the brims. Above
Dijkzigt station there are possibilities for development, as well as on the site of the high rise Unilever building. Communication with the municipality will in particular be aimed at the spatial relations within the urban campus and the possibilities for development there. Depending on the possibilities which Rotterdam offers on this location, a smaller or larger part of Rotterdam Polytechnic will be housed at Blaak/Wijnhaven (also an underground station). An interesting aspect of the axis from Wijnhaven/Blaak at one end and Coolhaven at the other is the twosided situation at the water. Water is barely visible in this largest port of the world. Since a couple of years Rotterdam has promoted itself as the Waterstad. Rotterdam Polytechnic can link up with this by emphatically being present at the water as a Polytechnic, and by making water a strong spatial element in the housing plans. In fact Rotterdam Polytechnic then has the water as the third determining element, in addition to the inner city and the underground. Over and above Rotterdam Polytechnic is situated in the vicinity of cultural amenities as NAI, the Booymans van Beuningen Museum and the Kunsthal.
Experience in Deventer and Leyden has shown how effective a joint operation of municipality and education institution may be. In Deventer it was only thanks to the joint operation that the cleaning of the soil and the construction of the building have started. The ministers Alders and Ritzen were in favour, the civil servants of the Ministry of the Environment against. The power of civil servants may be the fourth, but it is the strongest in many cases. Joint efforts were necessary again and again to make national civil servants execute the policy which was agreed upon.
Cooperation between the University and the municipality of Leyden also formed an essential element in the realisation of the Witte Singel/Doelen-project. Making a fresh start also belonged to this cooperation. A previous plan which the municipality and the university had agreed upon, the parties were less happy with. In the sixties a plan was developed for towers of 128 and 60 meters high. The highest tower would be the highest building in The Netherlands. It correlated with the spirit of the age, but not with the scale, structure and character of the inner city of Leyden. It is an example of how beneficial it may be not to execute a plan.
The following speaker, the architect Tjeerd Dijkstra, was one of the architects who gave shape to this alternative plan, which proves that even in our time we can build with quality and insight. New buildings and re-use do not compete, but complete one another.
Renovation and recontruction of 'Het Arsenaal' in Leiden
by prof. ir. Tj. Dijkstra
In 1978 the decision was taken to preserve the military building "Het Arsenaal", a rather striking project. The building is situated on the so-called "Doelensite" in Leiden and serves as a reference to the historical situation of this area. The building turned out to be highly suitable for reconstruction and for the housing of three Institutes of non-western Languages of the University of Leiden.
Prof. Tj. Dijkstra was commissioned to draw up the reconstruction plan.
The building consists of two adjoining squares, built successivily in the 19th century. Being used for military purposes, it has been built in a traditional and solid, but also simple way: Brick facades of massive load-bearing masonry, occasionally one and a half brick at ground level. The upper floors consisted of massive wooden beams of approx. 30x30 cm, at a distance of approx. 90 cm, covered with a heavy wooden floor.
The oldest part was very well suitable for an open storage for books without the need to affect the typical symmetry. Concerning the facade: studies in good daylight were made. In the inner court a new constuction was made for a closed store, in which the most precious books could be well preserved.
The second square, which is of a more recent date, was re-allocated into a chain of studies along the outer facade, around a very light open inner area. This is to be used as a communal space. The depth of this part of the building was about 7m at the south facade - and also at part of the western facade- just enough for a zone of 5m for workrooms and a corridor.
As the other facades had only a depth of 5m, it was decided to demolish this part and to make a new construction with the same measurements as those in the parts to be preserved. It became possible to make a corridor along the inner court on the ground- and first floor. The solution led to a great flexibility in the compartmentalisation and to an easy access to the library.
The inner court was covered with a roof mainly consisting of glass. This roofing led to a decrease in the investment costs as well as the exploitation costs. The use of energy should be decreased by using passive solar energy, diminishing the outer surface of the building as a whole.
It turned out that the three institutes fitted well into the building. As a
consequence of its spatial organisation, the libraries had to share the storage part and a big common reading room.
Curriculum vitae prof. Tj. Dijkstra
Tjeerd Dijkstra (born 18 May 1931) graduated in 1956. He has worked as an architect on numerous projects, while teaching architecture at several universities at the same time. His work as an architect was temporarily interrupted during the period in which he was appointed to "Rijksbouwmeester" for the Dutch government.
Apart from the numerous designs for various projects (among them some prizewinning), Tjeerd Dijkstra is responsible for many publications in the field of architecture. He gives lectures and has often been a member of the jury for prizes concerning built-up environment projects.
Since 1986 Tjeerd Dijkstra works independently. His bureau makes use of the services of free-lance architects and engineers, meanwhile maintaining responsibility for the design process. He is also involved in large projects in the city of Amsterdam as a supervisor.
New life for Micheal's Hill in Nes Ziona by Yaacov Hertz
Re-allocation of buildings for preservation of cultural, historical, economical and social values comes true for buildings sites of a special nature. The preservation of historical and natural values was practiced in the re-allocation of the site of Givat Michael (Michael's Hill) in the town of Nes Ziona, Israel.
Nes Ziona was founded at the end of the 19th century as an agricultural settlement. After the founding of the state of Israel in 1948, Nes Ziona took in thousands of immigrants who arrived from Europe and the Arab countries. The rapid growth transformed Nes Ziona from an agricultural village into a small town.
In order to cope with the changing needs, a new outline scheme was recently drawn up. Our office was in charge of the planning. As a solution for secondary education, two high school centers were planned, one in the western and one in the eastern part of town. For the western center the site of Michael's Hill was chosen. This site, with a splendid view of the surroundings, has a beautiful vegetation of trees and shrubs. Since the nineteen thirties it was used as a youth village, i.d. a boarding school for children who came to Israel without their parents. In the last twenty years the boarding school has not functioned anymore and, consequently, the buildings were neglected and in a deplorable state.
In order to preserve the beauty of the site and to bring new life to it, it was decided to re-allocate it as a High School Center serving the entire town of Nes Ziona. The center will serve for a student population of 3,000 students of high school age. It includes two junior,high schools and one senior comprehensive high school, as well as common facilities-such as a library, gymnasium, sport grounds, auditorium and administration.
The existing structures on the site were in such poor condition that only one of them could be preserved and integrated in the new building areas. In order to preserve the natural values and beauty of the site, we adapted the new buildings to the topography and scenery. The low and terraced buildings blend very well with the beautiful surroundings. Special attention was given to the use of building materials such as natural stone surfacing. The buildings were erected in several stages to facilitate the gradual populating of the campus, and they are now reaching their final stages.
To conclude: The re-allocation of Michael's Hill as a High School center preserves the cultural, historical and natural values of the site, and contributes to a sustainable future of the educational spaces in Nes Ziona.
Curriculum vitae Yaacov Hertz
Yaacov Hertz, 1923, was born and educated in the Netherlands. He immigrated to Israel in 1951 and established his reputation as an architect since 1960. Today he is senior partner in the firm Hertz-Fogel-Schwartz, Tel Aviv. This firm practices both architecture and town planning and is specialized in educational facilities. In addition to the planning of elementary -and high schools Herts-Fogel-Schwartz is in charge of the planning of educational systems for several municipalities.
Yaacov Hertz was consultant of the Minister of Education in the years 1965-1980. He was one of the founders of the Institute for the Development of Educational Facilities in Israel (1970).
Some of the more representative projects of Hertz-Fogel-Schwartz are:
a masterplan for the Wizman Institute of Science, Rechovot;
a comprehensive High School, Ashkelon;
a High School Center in Nes Ziona;
the Memorial Building for the Fallen of the Communications and Electronic
Corps of the Israel Defense Forces.
Sustainable urban planning (even in Breda) by A.W. Hartman
Changing the use of buildings is the subject of this seminar. My subject is not about the buildings themselves but about the context in which they play their role.
Sustainable urban planning is becoming an increasingly important item in the Netherlands. What do we mean by this.
One could say that the very concept of a city is anti-ecological. Most of the environmental polution comes from urbanised areas. The cities are the hot-spots of consumerism and of the spilling of resources. But this approach is not very fruitful in the today-situation where an increasing percentage of the population lives in cities and suburbs. One can better accept that apparantely cities are the way that species Man occupies its territory.
Sustainable urban planning than becomes the way to organise the city and its surroundings in such a matter that also future generations can live in it, and to use the resources in such a way that the city exploits its context as little as possible. One of the ways to look at sustainable urban planning is to look to it in three different ways: sites, flows and people.
For sites the keywords are: identity and variety.
For flows: water, energy, waste and traffic.
For people: social life, pluriformity, communication and commitment.
For each of these themes strategies should be developed, linked to each other. And this on the most approriate level of scale for the different types of urban environment.
For the strategies for the central business district will be different (for instance more hightech), than for quiet residential areas (more community-directed).
Breda has a certain tradition on the field of sustainable urban planning, and is often mentioned as a example-municipality. In cooperation with the Ministry for Housing, Physical Planning and Environment (VROM) some ideas on a more theoretical level are worked out for daily practice. In this project, called Sustainable Urban Planning (DUSO), the four goals are:
increasing the public support
innovation and transfer of knowledge to get a learning organisation monitoring of the effects of urban planning policy
realization of (some of the) ideas.
My contribution to the seminar will point out some aspects of the DUSO-project. One of the projects within DUSO is the re-development of a former theatre, so I will stay within the scope of the IUA-seminar.
Curriculum vitae A.W. Hartman
Since almost a year Ton Hartman is director of Urban Planning of the municipality of Breda. He is member of the National Advisory Council for Physical Planning (RARO). From 1983 till 1993 he was secretary-general and director of the Netherlands Institute for Physical Planning and Housing (NIROV), and a founding secretary of the Netherlands Platform for Urban Ecology.
Re-allocation of two educational buildings in Buenos Aires by Arch. Jacobo Schneider
When we consider re-allocation of spaces with educational functions, we have to distinguish two different ways in doing so. First possibility: recycling the same building which the educational institute used for many years, or second possibility: renovating other buildings with special educational requirements in order to move the institute to those renovated facilities.
In the first case, the existing spaces are generally recycled to answer to new educational requirements and it would be convenient if the building possesses architectural and constructive values that justify the new work. In the second case, the institute wants to concentrate its traditional and new sections in one central place. The last case contains the examples we are dealing with in our presentation.
The ORT Technical School
The physical planning of this re-allocation was prepared as a result of three preceding steps. First, analysis of the existing reinforced concrete structures and its adaptibility to the new technical and functional requirements; second, analysis of the building's systems of sanitaries, electricity, gas and comfort devices, and the possibilities to be adapted to new distributions; third, the proposals for new arrangements for educational and technical spaces which the school needs in future.
After these preceding steps and with all information available, the technical team elaborated an architectural brief, organized the project requirements, and settled the guidelines for the physical planning of the new facilities.
Within the new requirements, we had to consider special aspects of educational demands and all the conditions of the technical needs. Basically, it was agreed that the new spaces had to reflect the following educational aspects:
the idea of freedom
the continous sense of work
participation of the community
the sense of belonging
About the new location: The spaces were rebuilt to give place to traditional school orientations such as electronics, computers, business activities, etc. and to new professions like multi-media with a professional TV-studio, AM-FM-radiostation, graphic design, and audio-visual techniques, with a photographic laboratory.
With this example we want to show how it is possible to adapt old buildings to new functions, to rebuild existing spaces for new acitivities, as here for example for educational functions.
The Argentine Catholic University
This case, the re-allocation of an important university of Buenos Aires, was realized in four old warehouses, in one section of the old port of Buenos Aires. About ten of these warehouses, located in front of the river Plate (the river surrounding Buenos Aires), were sold by the government to private enterprises for developing affiches, shops, restaurants etc. The university bought four of these warehouses in order to re-allocate all the faculties of this location. The works include not only the re-adaption of the warehouses, but also of the outdoor places. Special open spaces with "patios", coffeeshops etc. were created, where students and professors can stay and enjoy the beautiful place, overlooking the river.
The first thing to be done was to rehabilitate one of the four docks, which was just finished with a surface of about 22,000 sqm for a population of 5,000 students. This building was five-storeyed: Basement, ground floor, three upper floors and one new floor added on top of the dock and assigned to research departments.
Curriculum vitae Jacobo Schneider
Graduated at the University of Buenos Aires, 1952
Professor of Architecture at Technical School, 1955-1985
Adviser in the "National Council of Technical Education"
Professor on "Educational Architecture" for graduated at the Universities of Buenos Aires, Belgrano, and MorOn, Argentina
Adviser in the "National Board of School Building", Ministry of Culture and Education, Argentina
Researcher in the "Institute of Research" of the faculty of architecture on the subject 'planning of educational buildings' in the city of Buenos Aires
Coordinator of the "Forum of educational Architecture" in the Buenos Aires International Biennial of Architecture
Design and building of schools and sports centers for students in Buenos Aires, La plate, RosaTio and other cities of Argentina
Re-allocation of existing buidings is now a new phenomenon. But during the recent years new elements have been added to the discussion on housing educational and cultural functions in an existing building. Old factories, abandoned seminaries and breweries have been redesigned or renovated to accommodate their new function.
After some general remarks on the architects point of view to the topic of re-use of existing building, I will focus on the case Breda; in particular the Institute for Higher Vocational Education West-Brabant.
General observations and statements
1.1. Form follows function
What to do as an architect, if during its lifetime the building will have several functions. The architect will need special architectural characteristics to express a form without
becoming a "faceless" building. Creative answers to multifunctional architecture.
1.2. Preplanned re-allocatable new buildings
In stead of re-allocating existing buildings into a new function "by chance"; architects as well as clients should insist on re-use adaptability and re-allocation in the clients brief.
The education of architects should focus more on re-allocating methods and schooling for both new and existing buildings.
The adaptability and flexibility of building will definitely require the technology of bearing/structural system with a adaptable infill system.
The case Breda, the Institute of Higher Vocational Education West-Brabant
The Polytechnic of Breda consists of seven faculties spreaded over 13 different locations in and outside Breda. Seven years ago an overall masterplan was made to concentrate on three sites:
A new building housing, four faculties including institute management and central services of the polytechnic.
- A technical faculty in existing facilities.
- College of fine arts in a former seminary.
All elements of renovation, restoration and re-allocation are available in the Breda masterplan.
2.1. Hogeschoollaan location
New building consists of approx 30.000 m2 gross area, to be built in three phases, on a
very limted building site:
first phase of 10.000 m2 has been erected;
second phase of another 10.000 m2 is at this moment under construction;
third phase is under design.
The program of requirements indicated a highly adaptable building that could conform new educational developments. In addition the building should be able to be
re-allocated into other functions for example like office building or science park purposes.
The size of 30.000 m2 had to be transformed to a human scale. The lay-out should allow an unity in variety.
This new building had to planned as a pre planned re-allocatable building. For this purpose components of free space areas of about 400 m2 were used with a wide variety of different lay-outs based on the principle of a bearing/structural system with a free infill package. From a architectural point of view a solid re-usable building was required. "Form follows function" was not appliable since several functions should be possible within the building. So new architectural characteristics are required for the kind of re-allocatable new to be build projects.
2.2. Lovensdiikstraat location
The second location of the polytechnic consists of 3 different elements:
an old building for chemistry;
a twenty years old solid building for a polytechnic;
a low budget ten years old building which is in use for economics education.
This complex has to be transformed and re-allocated to the new polytechnic faculty of Breda. Some prelimanary studies have been developed.
2.3. IJpelaar: from seminary to academy
De Upelaar was founded as a seminary in 1876. In 1944 it was largely destroyed by fire. New premises were built on the old foundations in 1947 and in 1958 a tuition building and a gymnasium were added. The main building was constructed in the form of a square around a large courtyard and is in the classical style. The tuition building was inspired by more modern architecture.
The Markendaal academy of social work used De Upelaar from 1969 to 1993 without making any significant changes.
The re-allocation for the St. Joost, college of Fine Arts and Design, began with a preliminary appraisal. This is a study of the quality and potential of the building and at the same time an initial plan. It was decided to make maximum use of the existing building, without any major structural alterations being made. The biggest operation in the main building was the covering of the large courtyard.
Exterior space became interior space, an ideal exhibition room. This conversion has broken up the main building's rigid circulation pattern. A striking feature is the shape of the roof, which suggests museological qualities. The horizontal glass strip in the roof and the strip of brick paving in the floor represent the margin between old and new.
A new architectural element unites the main building and the tuition building and transforms the half-open connecting corridor into a central hall. A logical place to have the new entrance. The tuition building proved to be an ideal studio area, clear and transparent. The roof terrace's value was increased by turning it into a functional interior room.
Large workshops were created by altering and extending the gymnasium complex.
Re-allocating Educational Facilities: case Upelaar by Luut Rienks
Re-allocation of buildings is not a new phenomenon. There are already examples of old factories, abandoned semenaries, etc. that have been redesigned or renovated to accommodate an educational function. But in the recent years new elements have been added to the discussion on housing an educational function in an
Consider a building as a system that consists of a structure and a package of build-in facilities and suppose that the system is designed to accommodate a function. We can assume that the structure has a technical lifetime of several decennia. The activities in the building will evaluate the total system by comparing structure and its facilities to its needs. Because these needs are changing, and in our present environment these needs change increasingly faster, there is always the possibility that an existing building does satisfy no longer those needs. The building has reached its economic lifetime.
It is clear that when one invests in a new package of build-in facilities, the building can meet with the changed needs again. In case of demolition, a structure in physical fairly good state can be wasted, both a loss to our environment and to anyone that is in need of new accommodation. Only investment in a new package of facilities could have made the building suited to a new functional lifecycle.
The 'Declaration of Interdependence for a Sustainable Future' (UIA/AIA World Congress of Architects, Chicago, June 1993) makes fundamentally clear that a sustainable design of an accommodation, structure and facilities, also includes reuse of existing buildings. This means that a design should be assessed when a new building is about to be build as well as when an existing building can be re-allocated to a new function.
But there are more elements in the discussion to re-allocate or to make a new building besides the system-approach. An existing building can offer opportunities that are (financially) hardly to be realized in a new building, the preservation of a building that has a considerable cultural-historic value is of social importance, etc..
Much of these elements can hardly be measured or are not of immediate interest to the owner or user of the building. For the building 'IJpeleer' from the start there was a conviction that these considerations were indeed a concern of the
educational institute 'West-Brabant'. But also a believe that the educational function to be re-allocated could benefit from a re-used accommodation. The effort made by owner and architect for a deeper reflection on the possibilities of the
building by means of an analysis of the structure, an opinion on architectural aspects and lengthy discussions, was worth the trouble. Re-allocation of the facility was considered a better alternative than a new building both from functional, cultural-historic and economic point of view.
In the case of 'IJpelaar' the presentation will demonstrate the considerations that led to the decision to re-allocate a 'College cf Fine Arts and Design' in a former seminary. It will show a practical approach to a system that possesses more value for the educational activities. The example of 'IJpelaar' will prove that a deeper reflection on housing-policy by an educational institute can be rewarding in more than financial terms only.
Curriculum vitae L.J. Rienks, M.Sc.
Luut Rienks (48) is member of the UlA Working Group on Educational and Cultural Spaces and member of the Architects Foundation for Research into Educational Buildings (STARO), which is a subsidiary of the Royal Dutch Association of Architects (BNA).
He is founder of a private firm of architects and consultants. About fifty professionals form a multidisciplinary team operating from Breda and Amersfoort mainly in the field of designing and managing projects for new and re-allocated educational facilities.
List of supporting funds and exhibitions
The UIA-seminar 'Re-allocation of Buildings' would not have been possible without the support, financial as well as immaterial, of:
Union Internationale des Architectes UlA
the Royal Institute of Dutch Architects BNA
Sprangers Bouwbedrijven B.V.
the College of Fine Arts and Design St. Joost
Rienks-Van Poppel Architects and Engineers the city of Breda
the Ministry of Education and Science
the Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment
the Ministry of Welfare, Public Health and Culture
During the seminardays the organizing committee will host the exhibitions of:
Eromes, furniture for offices and schools
APP All Remove, protective coatings for concrete and brick walls
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Made in Botswana by David Alexander Young 2005-2019. Programme updated 30th September, 2019, 13:14